India – Air Pollution Knowledge Assessment (APnA) city program


Data Sources The APnA “Air Pollution Knowledge Assessment” city program is designed to provide a starting point for understanding air pollution in cities in India. [summary report] summary leaflets [Agra] [Amritsar] [Bengaluru] [Bhopal] [Bhubaneswar] [Chandigarh] [Chennai] [Coimbatore] [Dehra Dun] [Indore] [Jaipur] [Kanpur] [Kochi] [Ludhiana] [Nagpur] [Patna] [Pune] [Raipur] [Ranchi] [Varanasi]

Click on the map for city specific information on emissions, meteorology and source specific pollution concentrations.

Information and data are prerequisites for an effective Air Quality Management (AQM) plan. This means having information on (a) What is the level of pollution (monitoring trends) (b) which areas are the most polluted (spatial trends) (c) who is contributing to this pollution (source trends) (d) when do pollution levels peak (temporal trends) and (e) what are the options we have to reduce pollution (control trends). This involves creating a detailed information database that includes pulling together data from disparate sources, surveys, mapping and atmospheric modeling. Deciding on policy options based on this information and implementing them effectively is the next step.

Data Sources Methodology

Summary of Total Estimated Emissions by Pollutant for 2015

 City namex-gridsy-grids#grids%urban-area%urban-popPM2.5PM10BCOCNOxCOVOCSO2CO2
1Agra4040160026.3%90.7% 8,350 15,600 2,100 2,950 10,250 79,250 16,400 9501.55
2Amritsar4040160027.3%85.1% 8,600 13,450 2,000 2,600 12,050 72,100 16,500 2,400 2.40
3Bengaluru6060360027.2%93.0% 31,300 67,100 9,350 8,450 56,900 335,550 83,500 5,300 10.42
4Bhopal4040160025.8%96.6% 5,900 13,650 1,300 1,550 8,950 54,300 15,100 9001.65
5Bhubaneswar3050150026.7%88.2% 11,250 22,400 2,700 3,600 22,250 129,050 27,350 1,350 2.28
6Chandigarh6060360026.6%84.6% 18,300 33,600 3,450 4,850 56,300 160,350 35,850 3,200 3.91
7Chennai5050250027.0%92.7% 94,050 132,350 14,500 11,250 207,400 345,550 92,900 26,600 9.76
8Coimbatore5050250019.2%87.9% 14,100 23,900 3,500 3,050 25,150 113,100 28,200 2,650 3.13
9Dehradun402080018.6%88.4% 4,650 7,500 1,300 1,700 7,200 39,450 8,600 7501.04
10Indore4040160027.8%93.0% 11,850 27,600 3,250 3,150 15,200 83,700 22,250 1,400 2.72
11Jaipur4040160027.9%93.6% 17,200 34,800 4,700 5,250 20,400 137,600 31,550 2,650 3.79
12Kanpur4030120026.3%89.9% 34,550 43,900 5,150 5,550 24,750 166,000 34,100 2,450 2.39
13Kochi4040160026.4%94.4% 9,150 16,400 2,250 2,100 63,900 69,550 14,850 20,900 2.40
14Ludhiana4040160027.6%86.9% 14,500 24,200 4,550 3,850 31,200 128,550 25,900 3,750 3.53
15Nagpur4040160026.6%95.5% 67,100 86,300 6,900 7,900 128,100 176,850 52,900 9,600 6.89
16Patna6030180018.9%84.8% 18,050 29,500 4,800 6,150 18,350 171,450 27,650 3,850 2.86
17Pune4040160027.9%96.7% 17,700 36,900 5,600 4,150 37,000 166,050 41,900 3,950 5.81
18Raipur6030180018.7%86.6% 41,500 59,650 9,150 9,050 60,700 163,300 118,150 7,600 3.13
19Ranchi4040160021.5%87.2% 13,150 24,300 3,350 4,550 13,150 128,500 25,300 1,950 2.31
20Varanasi4040160015.5%71.0% 12,100 17,450 3,050 4,850 14,050 134,400 21,850 2,300 1.79

#grids = number of grids in the selected urban airshed with a spatial resolution of 0.01° x 0.01° (approximately 1km x 1km); %urban-area = the share of grids designated as urban grids, depending on the built-up area in each of the grids; %urban-pop = the share of total domain population living in the urban grids; emission units – all particulates, SO2, NOx, CO, and VOC are in tons/year and CO2 is in million tons/year (for details, click on the city dots in the map)


Summary of Monitoring and Modeled Air Pollution Data

 City nameStations-ManualStations-ContinuousStations-NeedednampPM10nampNO2nampSO2sat-1998sat-2014sat-%incmodeled_PM2.5 (2015)Modeled-%non-urban
1Agra6123362 ± 19343.9 ± 22.109.3 ± 5.482.893.613.0%89.0 ± 12.236%
2Amritsar3118195 ± 44.938.9 ± 7.613.8 ± 2.658.658.80.3%83.4 ± 8.353%
3Bengaluru7541302 ± 20869.2 ± 44.030.9 ± 23.527.229.79.2%36.5 ± 916%
4Bhopal5018196 ± 11723.2 ± 16.902.9 ± 2.534.546.434.5%49.9 ± 6.742%
5Bhubaneswar5022128 ± 10226.9 ± 17.203.0 ± 1.534.945.630.7%47.7 ± 9.432%
6Chandigarh5127226 ± 10344.3 ± 32.404.0 ± 1.953.459.110.7%58.1 ± 6.951%
7Chennai11338199 ± 10165.5 ± 37.139.7 ± 31.834.733.8-2.6%57.5 ± 16.813%
8Coimbatore3019062 ± 39.726.9 ± 15.304.0 ± 1.728.527.9-2.1%19.4 ± 433%
9Dehradun3013170 ± 53.826.3 ± 8.023.9 ± 7.363.284.934.3%51.2 ± 9.142%
10Indore3020139 ± 69.818.9 ± 3.911.3 ± 3.733.943.728.9%66.3 ± 12.328%
11Jaipur6226313 ± 14179.8 ± 25.314.5 ± 7.55053.87.6%99.6 ± 19.430%
12Kanpur8127421 ± 18870.7 ± 32.014.0 ± 11.781.585.44.8%114.1 ± 25.623%
13Kochi7023221 ± 16738.4 ± 30.510.7 ± 10.625.424-5.5%29.1 ± 7.621%
14Ludhiana4120335 ± 14948.0 ± 14.418.7 ± 6.057.3639.9%90.2 ± 20.341%
15Nagpur7122192 ± 11264.7 ± 36.020.7 ± 18.834.945.630.7%84.9 ± 19.121%
16Patna2126162 ± 91.733.0 ± 24.304.6 ± 5.063.284.934.3%122.2 ± 23.119%
17Pune4130162 ± 10482.5 ± 45.040.3 ± 20.933.344.834.5%56.3 ± 12.925%
18Raipur2019275 ± 81.035.3 ± 13.312.9 ± 5.037.949.931.7%82.3 ± 21.826%
19Ranchi1016190 ± 52.335.1 ± 5.418.3 ± 2.039.149.526.6%73.0 ± 15.429%
20Varanasi2123139 ± 15.926.2 ± 6.718.4 ± 2.566.578.317.7%78.4 ± 10.331%

NAMP = national ambient monitoring program running manual and continuous monitoring stations, operated and maintained by CPCB; the NAMP data (for PM10, NO2, and SO2) in the table is a summary of all the data available from the network between 2011 and 2015; #needed = the number of stations needed in each of the cities to represent air pollution spatially and temporally (calculated based on the population and the urban extent in the city); satellite derived PM2.5 (for 1998 and 2014) is the district level average from the global database used for GBD assessments; modeled PM2.5 data is from this study for 2015; %non-urban = the percentage of modeled pollution for the city’s urban area which is estimated to originate from outside the modeling domain (for details, click on the city dots in the map)


Data Sources We would like to thank the Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation (Delhi, India) for their support towards this program. All the analysis and results are sole responsibility of the authors @UrbanEmissions.info. Please send you comments and questions to simair@urbanemissions.info.